The French overseas departments of Guyana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Reunion as well as the Overseas Community of Saint Martin are part of the European Union, but are not part of the Schengen area, which means that it is not possible to travel to these departments on a French Schengen visa. The EU`s free movement provisions apply, but each territory has its own visa regime for non-Swiss, non-Swiss. While a valid visa for one of these territories is valid for all, visa waiver lists differ.  A Schengen visa, also issued by France, is not valid for these territories. A visa for Sint Maarten (valid for traveling on the Dutch side of the island of Saint Martin) also applies to the French page.  France also has several territories that are not part of the EU or the Schengen area.  They are located there: French Polynesia, South and French Antarctica, New Caledonia, Saint Barthélemy, Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon and Wallis and Futuna. All travellers entering and leaving the Schengen area by general aviation or on a pleasure boat must find their first access/arrival point at an airport/airfield or seaport designated as a border crossing point at the external border. By exception, travellers on board a pleasure boat are allowed to make their first port of call in a port that is not designated as an external border crossing when informing port authorities and having the permission of the border guards.  In practice, however, this is a difficult loophole to control and large-scale drug trafficking involving private vessels has been discovered.
Along the southern coast of Schengen countries in the Mediterranean, the coastguard is making considerable efforts to prevent the illegal entry of private boats. The Schengen area has a population of nearly 420 million and an area of 4,312,099 square kilometres.  About 1.7 million people go to work daily via a European internal border, and in some regions they account for up to a third of the labour force. Every year, there are a total of 1.3 billion border crossings at the Schengen borders. 57 million crossings are needed for the transport of goods by road worth 2.8 trillion euros per year.    The decrease in trade costs resulting from the use of Schengen varies from 0.42% to 1.59% depending on geography, trading partners and other factors. Countries outside the Schengen area also benefit.  Schengen states have tightened border controls with non-Schengen countries.  From 2015[update], Andorra, Monaco and San Marino negotiated an association agreement with the EU.